The following help pages describe how to build a structural model with either Gocad or SimModeler.
SimModeler CAD workflow
Since September 2019, SimModeler features powerful tools for processing discrete data (geometry in the form of meshes), which allow building structural models without the need to rely on additional CAD software. We illustrate the SimModeler CAD workflow by building the structural model of the Palu earthquake dynamic rupture scenario (Ulrich et al., 2019). See SimModeler CAD workflow.
GOCAD CAD workflow
GOCAD is the tool we historically used to process complex geophysical data into structural models. Since then, SimModeler developed tools for processing discrete data, in particular, a discrete surface intersection algorithm, which is much faster and more reliable than the one from GoCAD. We, therefore, recommend the use of the SimModeler workflow. Because GoCAD may still be useful for fine processing of surface data (e.g. surface smoothing with constraints), we detail the full GoCAD workflow at: Generating a CAD model using GOCAD: basic tutorial.
A collection of python scripts typically used to create the surfaces used in the CAD model is available here. They are documented (try -h option). The most important scripts are:
create_fault_from_trace.pyallows creating a meshed surface from a fault trace. The fault trace is resampled, smoothed, and extended using either a constant, a depth-varying, or an along-strike varying dip.
create_surface_from_rectilinear_grid.pyallows creating a meshed surface from a (possibly sparse, e.g. Slab2.0 dataset) structured dataset (e.g. netcdf).
create_surface_from_structured_grid.pyallows creating a meshed surface from structured grid of nodes. Vertices in a row or a column do not necessary share the same x and y values (non rectilinear grid).
surface_from_one_dim_structured_grid.pyallows creating a meshed surface from a partially structured grid of nodes. The point set should consist of serveral lines of nodes of same y (or x, depending on args.axis) coordinates. Contrary to
create_surface_from_structured_grid.py, the number of nodes on a line (resp. on a column) is not necessarily constant. On the other hand, the lines (resp. the columns) of the point cloud should share constant ordinates (resp. abscissa).
convertTs.pyallows converting the geometric model from Gocad into another supported format (e.g. stl, bstl).
Processing high-resolution topographic data
High resolution topographic and bathymetric data are usually available. Generating geometric models including such large datasets can be challenging. In particular, intersecting such surfaces with other surfaces can be time-consuming and error-prone. Here we present various strategies and tools to overcome this challenge.
Gdal is a powerful library to process gridded data. It allows, for instance, to easily resample or crop a dataset, and to convert files in handy file formats. Here is a commented example of our use of Gdal to create a ts surface from a high-resolution topography of Nepal (file data/merged_original.tif).
#resample data gdalwarp -s_srs EPSG:4326 -r near -tr 0.0025 0.0025 data/merged_original.tif data/file250b.tif #crop data gdalwarp -te 83.7 26. 88.1 29.4 data/file250b.tif data/file250.tif #change format gdal_translate -of netCDF -co "FOMRAT=NC4" data/file250.tif data/file250.nc #python script from 'creating_geometric_model' #The specified hole allows to use algorithm described in 'remeshing the topography' python3 create_surface_from_rectilinear_grid.py data/file250.nc data/file250.stl --proj "+init=EPSG:32645" --hole 84.8 86.5 27.1 28.3
Topographic data coarsening with SimModeler
To avoid dealing with too large files when building the CAD model, topography data can be coarsened where fine resolution is not necessary. For further details, see Remeshing the topography.
The same procedure can be also useful when the intersection between 2 surfaces fails in Gocad. In fact, creating a clean mesh of one of the surfaces can facilitate the intersection step in Gocad. In such a case, all surface already intersected with the surface that we want to mesh again have to be exported to SimModeler. The mesh attributes “Use Discrete Geometry Mesh” and “No mesh” have to be assigned to these surfaces. This will ensure that the border nodes of the new meshed surfaces keep unchanged.
Alternative using Gocad
It can occur that the procedure described in Remeshing the topography is not applicable. For example, if a first model with fine topography has been compiled, and we want to extend it without starting from scratch. In this case, an alternative procedure can be used: Adapting the CAD model resolution using Gocad.
Dealing with intersection artifacts
On the use of projections
Special care must be taken when projecting from WGS84 to a projected coordinate system (e.g. Mercator) as the coordinates of the projected model can then be centered on a point distant from (0,0), which can cause numerical precision issues when building the geometric model or when meshing. For instance, for the Kaikoura scenario, we used EPSG:3994, leading to a model centered on (6e6,-4e6) m for a model size of roughly 500 km. It can then be a good idea to manually center back the model on (0,0,0). This can usually be done by using the option +x_0=xxx and +y_0=yyy in the projection description.